Classification of engineering materials deals on the new application of materials in modern advancement in science and technology. The materials are grouped into the following:
- Ceramics materials
- Polymeric materials
- Advance materials
- Composite materials see results
It should be noticed that in the advancement of chemical engineering discipline, these materials are employed; especially in advance manufacturing and chemical designs. This is one of the major concern in engineering discipline especially material science engineering.
These are organic compounds that are chemically comprised of carbon, hydrogen and other non metallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen. They have chain like structure and very large molecular structures. The primary bond they have is covalent bond with van der waal forces present.
Due to their bonding nature, they are electrically and thermally insulators. They can also be made conductive through the process of doping. Conducting polymer matrix composites can be obtained by the use of conducting fillers. Polymeric materials have low density, poor and mechanical properties. They chemically inert in many environments and they are non magnetic.
Polymeric materials are grouped into the following: thermoplastic and thermo-set.
Thermoplastics are group of polymeric materials that have molecules with covalent bonding and inter-molecular forces in-between their molecules examples are; nylon, polyvinyl chloride rubber; while Thermo-set are polymeric materials with network of covalent bond such as epoxy, phenonyl.
These materials are utilized in high technology applications; such as fibre optics and electronics. This in majority favors the communication and transmission stations. They are grouped into the following:
- Semi conductors
- Bio materials
- Smart or intelligent materials
- Nano materials
These groups are the trending technology of this age and they are highly employed in engineering, medicine electronics and many more.
Semi conductors: these types of materials have electrical properties that are intermediate between conductors and insulators. Semi conductors have advent of electronics and computer industries and positive contributions on defense, communication and power.
Bio materials: the application of bio materials is in relation to medicine. They are materials use in implanting in human damaged part of the body or for any other purpose, such as artificial legs& hands, microchips. These materials must not inject harmful substances to the body and must be compactable with the body tissues.
Smart or intelligent materials: one special properties of this group of materials is the ability to respond to the environment quickly. (high sensitivity). Examples are sensors, actuators, and transistors. The aspect of chemical process control and simulation in chemical engineering is based on this group.
Nano materials: these are materials whose structural elements range from 1-100 nano-meter. They can be called nano particles, non crystals and quantum dots. They are employed in modern physics and electromagnetic particles. They are found in ceramics, electronics, energy production and catalytic production. see more