Every industrial and domestic processes involves Chemical Engineering Separation Techniques . Materials undergo Separation processes in order to be used in production.
Chemical Engineering Separation Techniques is the core aspect of Industrial process. There are variety of industrial processes used by Chemical Engineer and production engineers. These processes are grouped Unit operation and unit processes
Some industrial processes include
There are several separation processes but we will limit our teaching to some. They include;
Crystallization is one the oldest technique. It is of many advantages. it can be uses in purification, concentration of solutions. the main ideal of crystallization is that it occurs at saturation point, in a homogeneous phase and a solid crystal is produced.
Crystallization is affected by some factors such as agitation, temperature and concentration of solution.
Absorption of gas
Absorption of gases on solid is an effective way of separation. But the technique is expensive because of the equipment involved. Absorption is not a surface phenomenon as adsorption. chemical reaction processes under adsorption and absorption mechanism if you have studied your chemical kinetics very well. Read some articles
Examples of materials that undergo absorption include charcoal, membrane, earth surface and many more. Continue this article here
Distillation is the process of separating mixtures or substances at different temperatures. This is applied in oil industries in production of different petroleum products. In distillation pressure is not considered much but the concept of fugacity is introduced.
Fugacity of gases occurs at low pressure. There are many factors and invisible things that happens in the column. But with the use of equilibrium curve and Azeotropic curves we determine the main compositions and happenings of the column.
Here we can see flash distillation ans many more. the use of Antoine equation is useful in determination of fluid composition and temperature.
Distillation can be in single or multiple phase. In the material balance on columns, the overall balance is considered. this calculation is all insufficient if the energy balance within the plates are not considered.
In distillation calculation, assumption of Constant molal ratio is assumed if the material balance is considered.
Notice that feed is not introduced on the plate in order to maintain the statistical balance of the tray or plate. separation of components happens on the plate. Here the assumption is that, the vapor rising from the plate is in equilibrium with the liquid going down the bottom part of the column.
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Adsorption and fixed bed apparatus
Adsorption is a surface phenomenon use in separating particles. In adsorption, particles attached themselves on the active site of the adsorbent. The adsorbent builds a thin film layer of the accumulated particles.
Activated Charcoal can be used as adsorbent. It must have under gone the process of carbonization. Activated charcoal can be used in treatment of waste water. This is a purification process. Remember Reverse Osmosis in water treatment process. The process of water treatment using activated charcoal is an adsorption process.