These are ways in which biodegradable waste of plants are managed and treated in order to reduce the harmful nature to life. Every community or plant has ways in which the waste disposal is carried out but must be in accordance of the sanitary rules.
Solid wastes are classified into two main categories namely:
- Sources and composition
- Disposal or reclycling
These categories has four subdivisions such as
- Rubbish: they include both combustible and noncombustible substances such as paper or broken glass.
- Garbage: these are waste from food sources; they include cooked and uncooked food and vegetable waste.
- Refuse: this includes all sort of decomposable solid waste from an environment except body excretion.
- Quantity and characteristics: this deals on the amount and quantity of refused produced by a community.
- industrial waste: these are resulted due to industrial operations with exception from suspended demotic industrial waste waters.
- Agricultural and domestic waste: these consist of organic waste with exception to chemical used in different agricultural operations. Examples are crop residue, animal manure and poultry.
Sanitation of refuse
These are ways in which disposal and treatment of solid waste can be carried out. Disposal method is divided into two ways; primary and secondary ways.
Primary collection is a method seen in domestic sanitation where individual household dispose solid waste at a particular location before it is taken to the final disposal point.
Refuse disposal and processing
- Dumping: this is the gathering of solid waste at a particular location.
- Sanitary landfill: waste is dispose in a dug pit in a particular environment and cover when fill. Non-biodegradable materials are not dispose this way but are recycled.
- Composting: this is a biochemical degradation of solid waste into humus like product. The system has a fertilizing vale and anaerobic.
- Incineration: the system where large organic waste is burnt in order to reduce it’s volume, microbial activities and to produce inert gases such as N2, O2 and CO2. It has a simple reactor design to enable complete combustion.
Economics of waste management
Due to technological improvement, waste is economical to the nation. This is through the process of recycling. Separation process such as magnetic and hand picking are involved. The most common separation is pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is known as destructive distillation and the same as cracking.