Bio-fuel is a obtained from local organic materials. There are many fuels that can operate on an engine. These fuels depends on the composition of it’s constituents. The increasing nature of technology has given rise to blending of fuel and petroleum products. Therefore, different sources have given rise to bio-fuels; that will run on several engines. This is to reduce cost of production and improved efficiency of engines.
Petrol and diesel are the major fuel in automobiles. Globally, many researchers are seeking for alternative ways for running engines. Domestic are answer to the quest. Some of these products include; cassava, vegetable oil, maggot extracts, palm kernel oil extract, mustard, and many more. These extracts are blended in definite proportion to get the desired fuel. These products are in high demand and should be taken serious in production and research. Example of the blending is: combining coconut oil extract with diesel.
Also, the oil from plant seed is a good source of fuel. These products are used in some transportation companies. Alternative fuel holds major role in future automobile industries. This is because of the reduced risk, health effect and global disturbance.
This is the fuel derived from the blending of vegetable oil and other components in definite proportion. Vegetable is not directly use is because of it’s viscosity. The viscosity of the extracted oil is high and can pose a danger in a running engine. In order to reduce viscosity, it is converted to methyl ester which of low viscosity. This is done by the vegetable oil with methyl alcohol in the presence of a catalyst.
“industrial production has however, focused on transforming vegetable oil into a mixture of fatty acid esters by a process called AKIN; to a cracking petroleum, that is transesterification of triglycerides with low molecular weight alcohol. This produces a higher volatility mixture with physiochemical properties much more or similar to those of convectional diesel fuel.” (B.K SHARMA 2011).
A biodiesel has no sulphur content. The biofuel fraction in diesel is biodegradable. It is rich in oxygen for effective combustion.
Biodiesel is a special fuel among biofuels. It has definite blended compositions. Industrially, the vegetable oil contains both saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon fatty acids. These contents are reduced to the cloud point of -11˚c. The addition of erucic acid can be of relevance depending on the level.
Some production of biodiesel follows a catalytic reaction with KOH and NAOH. This helps in conversion efficiency in a single stroke. It also reduces the cost of designing a reactor. The type of catalyst used depends on the production techniques. Fatty acid generation help analyze the chromatographic methods. This reduces temperature and ratio of alcohol to oil.
Economics of scale
Biofuel readily meets environmental friendly conditions. They are not price competitive. This is because; the source of raw material is cheap. In the increasing technology, predictions are made that by 2030, the price of biodiesel will be competitive at crude oil per barrel measurement.
Countries like, India, uses a blend of 20% biofuel and 80% diesel. This is commented to be good to engine performance. Europe uses blend of 20% biodiesel.
The system can be abducted considering the experiment conducted by the University of California USA. It was commented by the National Biodiesel Board (NBB). It was discovered that the potential cancer cause in biodiesel particulate matter is 94% less than that of diesel emission. check more on biodiesel
David M.M; biofuel. Biotechnology, Chemistry and sustainable development. CRC press. P 285-293 (2008)
B.K. Sharma; industrial chemistry including chemical engineering, GOET publishing house. P 10:310-10:311 (2011)