Water treatment is a process of purifying water for easy usage. Water treatment focuses on the reasons for treatment, basic processes in the treatment process and applications of processes to surface treatment.
REASONS FOR WATER TREATMENT
The basic reasons for treating water include:
- To remove contaminants that is harmful to human health.
- To remove contaminants that makes water smell and for useful application.
The contaminant in water is regulated by Environmental protection agency (EPA). They enact laws and regulation that guide water treatment. Every water treatment follows the regulations. This aids to improve water and it’s treatment system.
The maximum contaminant level (MCL) is the legal amount of substances that is allowed in public drinking water. They are under the regulation and safe drinking laws. These contaminants are measured in concentration.
These EPA regulations ensure that the following are upheld and known as treatment technique (TT). Treatment techniques are also in the form of regulations. They include:
- The contaminants in the water will not have adverse effect to health.
- The contaminants are appropriate and not exceed the required amount prescribed
- In the effect of these regulations; drinking water system is improved.
These regulations are published by the agency so as to be followed by water producers. Reviews are also made when the enacted regulation does not favor the nation. This is based on market research on health matters. The combination of maximum contaminant level and treatment technique; give rise to National Primary Drinking water Regulation (NPDWR) or primary standards. There is also, National Secondary drinking water Regulation (NSDWR) or secondary standards. Secondary standards are majorly enforced. They regulate cosmetics; such as skin, tooth decay and Aesthetics such as color. These regulation are secondary, their effect is not direct to human health. These standards are under safe drinking water Acts:
- Assessing and protecting drinking water source as well as collection system.
- Ensuring that water is treated under the required regulation and by right operators
- Ensure the quality distribution of water
- Relating useful information to the public on quality water improvement techniques.
PRIMARY REGULATION REVIEW
This reviews living organism and chemical contaminants in water.
Microbial contaminant: the presence of micro organisms in water causes adverse effect to health. Micro-organisms such as virus, bacteria and protozoan. EPA regulates their presence at the zero level. Example is cholera.
Chemical contaminants: the maximum contaminant zero. This is due to the effects posed by these chemicals. Example is cancer.
Chemical contaminants include: nitrates, arsenic, chlorine, uranium, sulphates and carbonates. Some contaminants are produce natural or artificial.
Artificial occurrences such as agricultural practices (fertilizers human waste) and industrial wastes. Nitrates are found in large concentration in ground water. This has resulted to great health issues in water production.
- Nitrates: results from agricultural application like fertilizer and animal waste. It could cause birth defects and complication in pregnancy.
- Uranium: this could results from radioactivity effects. It could also be found in rocks and mining processes. It could cause kidney damage, liver problems and liver cancer.
- Chlorine: this is of great importance in water treatment. It can serve as water disinfectant (prevent tooth decay). But unsafe when expose unprotected in the environment.
- Arsenic: this occurs naturally. Excess of arsenic in water can cause mental malfunction in children. The MCL IS 10ppb.